The Jiangsu Province Ministry of State Security (‘JSSD”) was a provincial foreign intelligence arm of the People’s Republic of China’s Ministry of State Securlty (“MSS”), headquartered in Nanjing, China. The MSS, and by extension the JSSD, was primarily responsible for domestic counter-intelligence, non-military foreign intelligence, and aspects of political and domestic security. From January 2010 to May 20L5, JSSD employees, along with individuals working at the directlon of the JSSD, conspired to steal sensitive commercial technologlcal, aviation, and aerospace data by hacking into computers in the United States and abroad.