Based on an INTERPOL survey featured in a joint Trend Micro-INTERPOL research paper, West African cybercriminals stole an average of US$2.7 million from businesses and an average of US$422,000 from individuals from 2013 to 2015. Scams or various types of fraud, whether simple (like 419 or Nigerian prince scams) or complex (like business email compromise [BEC] scams), run rampant in the West African threat landscape.